With the development of bioengineering, drugs are no longer limited to traditional chemical drugs. More and more attention has been paid to biological drugs with a wide range of sources and low toxicity. In the past, the development of new drug delivery systems has received significant attention. A successful drug delivery system can improve the stability of biological drugs, achieve the targeted effect of drugs through special targeted materials, and reduce the toxic and side effects. In particular, vesicles have outstanding advantages in delivering biological drugs such as protein peptides, nucleic acids, hormones, etc. …


Since being founded, exosomes have been considered as a cell waste for many years, but recently, studies have found that exosomes are an important medium for delivering proteins and lipids between cells. Just like a stuffed suitcase unloaded from the belly of a cargo plane, molecular backpacks called exosomes are constantly produced from the cells of the body. Each backpack is filled with a variety of contents, and another cell may open and use it.

Exosomes derived from immune cells contain major histocompatibility complexes (MHC) and various antigens, which can control various immune responses, such as the exchange of antigen…


The incidence and case fatality rate of cancer is increasing with the deterioration of the global environment and the changes in people’s living habits, which urges the development of anti-tumor drugs and related studies. Bispecific antibodies (BsAbs) are one of the novel concepts that are regarded as the second-generation antibodies for tumor therapies with broad prospects.

Bispecific antibodies are featured with a structure of binding to two different epitopes on the same or different antigens, which make them more efficient in the process of killing tumor cells. …


Most human genomes can be transcribed into RNA, but only a few regions produce protein-coding mRNA, while the remaining regions are transcribed into non-coding RNA. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are known for their important regulatory roles in a variety of biological processes, such as imprinting, dose compensation, transcriptional regulation, and splicing. In the past 30 years, through genome editing of pluripotent stem cells (PSC), the physiological functions of protein-coding genes have been extensively characterized. However, the research on lncRNAs using genome editing technology has only received attention in recent years.

Molecular scissors have been used to generate point mutations in…


A material that can respond to a magnetic field in a certain way is called a magnetic material. According to the magnetic strength of the material in the external magnetic field, it can be divided into diamagnetic material, paramagnetic material, ferromagnetic material, antiferromagnetic material and ferrimagnetic material. Most materials are diamagnetic or paramagnetic, and they respond weakly to external magnetic fields. Ferromagnetic materials and ferrimagnetic materials are ferromagnetic materials. Generally speaking, magnetic materials refer to ferromagnetic materials. For magnetic materials, the magnetization curve and hysteresis loop are characteristic curves that reflect their basic magnetic properties. Ferromagnetic materials are generally Fe…


Pronalyse is a new division of Creative Proteomics, which is an integrated CRO company with rich experience in providing drug development service for over 10 years. With years of experience in offering professional and high-quality products for academic use and pharmaceutical industries, Creative Proteomics Pronalyse offers monoclonal antibody characterization service.

As more and more companies join the production of monoclonal antibody drugs, monoclonal antibody drugs occupy an increasing share of the biopharmaceutical market. …


The most comprehensive analysis to date: Due to biological limitations, humans cannot slow down the rate of aging

Whether it is a superhero in “The Avengers” or a vampire in “Twilight”, immortality and eternal youth have always been eye-catching topics, which represent the ultimate dream of mankind. Scientists have also spent decades trying to use the power of genomics and artificial intelligence to find a way to prevent or even reverse aging, and there has been a flash of hope in some rodent studies.

Statistics show that since 1850, the average life expectancy of human beings has increased by about…


There are three key points in RNA drug R&D.

First, the immunogenicity of RNA drugs: Because foreign RNA will be recognized by the immune system as a signal of virus interference, RNA drugs will more or less stimulate the immune system and cause a series of side effects.

Second, the stability of RNA drugs: There are a large number of ribonucleases (RNases) in human blood and tissue fluid, and naked RNAs that have not been chemically modified are usually destroyed before entering the cell. …


RNA drugs directly interfere with the process of gene transcription and translation, the essence of which is gene therapy. Traditional gene therapy in a narrow sense generally refers to directly modifying the disease-causing genes of target cells or introducing foreign copies of normal genes. However, RNA therapy focuses more on the regulation of gene expression, which is a generalized gene therapy. There are more than 100 modifications that have been found on RNA, providing it with additional regulatory information in addition to base sequence information. The result is that at the same transcription level, the total amount of protein produced…


Lifeasible, a world leading biotechnology company specialized in agricultural science, now offers plant genetic modification by CRISPR/CAS9 to provided engineered plants with enhanced properties.

CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing is a technique for rapid editing of genomic DNA with very high efficiency and specificity, and its mechanism is the same as that used by prokaryotes to defend against viral or other foreign DNA invasion. Cas9 is an RNA-guided DNA endonuclease associated with CRISPR. SgRNAs (single-guideRNAs) are packaged with multiple crRNAs and tracrRNA that can bind Cas9 and direct this complex to complementary sequences in the target DNA. The HNH and RuvC domains…

Ivan Chen

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